Reference style

VGTU Journals use the APA (surname and year) short reference system for citations in the text with a detailed alphabetical list at the end of the paper. For the work by two authors both should be mentioned every time. The word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and the ampersand in parentheses should be used, e.g. Saleh and Sammer (2009)… or (Saleh & Sammer, 2009). All the authors should be listed in the signal phrase or in parentheses when the source of up to five authors is cited for the first time in the text. The word “and” between the authors’ names within the text and the ampersand in parentheses should be used, e.g. Hanrahan, Layde, Zhu, Guse, and Hargarten (2009)… or (Beliatynskii, Kuzhel, & Stepura, 2011). The first author’s surname followed by et al. should be used for subsequent citations. If the sources have more than six researchers, only the surname of the first author followed by et al. should be indicated (Singh et al., 2012). In case the list of references includes persons bearing the same surnames, the first letter of the author’s name should be indicated, e.g. (V. Paulauskas & D. Paulauskas, 2013). Sources of the same authors and the same year should be mentioned in the following way (Eboli & Mazzulla, 2008a, 2008b). In case no author is indicated, the title of the source in the signal phrase, and the first word or two of the title in the parentheses should be used. If there is no date in the source, the abbreviation “n.d.” (for “no date”) should be used. Please use the transliterated (not translated) version of the names and sources in Cyrillic (Beliatynskii et al., 2011).


Abreha, D. A. (2007). Analysing public transport performance using efficiency measures and spatial analysis; the case study of Addis Ababa, Ethiopia. MSc Thesis, International Institute for Geo-Information Science and Earth Observation, Enschede, The Netherlands.

Badami, M. G., & Haider, M. (2007). An analysis of public bus transit performance in Indian cities. Transportation Research Part A: Policy and Practice, 41(10), 961-981.

Beliatynskii, A., Kuzhel, N., & Stepura, V. (2011). Vzajemozv’yazok parametriv modeli transportnogo potoku – sliduvannya za liderom z tekhniko-ekonomichnymy ta tekhniko-ekspluatacijnymy pokaznykamy systemy VADS. Visnyk inzhenernoji Akademiji Ukrajiny, (1), 185-187 (in Ukrainian).

British Standards Institute. (2000). BS 6349-1:2000: Maritime structures: Code of practice for general criteria.

Directive 2009/28/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council of 23 April 2009 on the promotion of the use of energy from renewable sources and amending and subsequently repealing directives 2001/77/EC and 2003/30/EC. Retrieved from

Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2008a). A stated preference experimentfor measuring service quality in public transport. Transportation Planning and Technology, 31(5), 509-523.

Eboli, L., & Mazzulla, G. (2008b). Willingness-to-pay of public transport users for improvement in service quality. European Transport – Trasporti Europei, 38, 107-118.

Hanrahan, R. B., Layde, P. M., Zhu, S., Guse, C. E., & Hargarten, S. W. (2009). The association of driver age with traffic injury severity in Wisconsin. Traffic Injury Prevention, 10(4), 361-367.  

Highway Capacity Manual. (2010). Transportation research board (5th ed.). Retrieved from

Knorr, F. (2013). Applicability and application of microscopic traffic simulations. Dissertation, University of Duisburg-Essen. Retrieved from

Lithuanian Standards Board. (2010). LST EN 590:2009+A1:2010: Automobiliniai degalai. Dyzelinas. Reikalavimai irtyrimometodai [Automotive Fuels – Diesel – Requirements and Test Methods].

McGehee, D. V., Mazzae, E. N., & Baldwin, S. G. H. (2000). Driver reaction time in crash avoidance research: validation of a driving simulator study on a test track. In Proceedings of the IEA 2000/HFES 2000 Congress, San Diego, California, USA (pp. 320-323).

Montgomery, D. C. (2012). Introduction to statistical quality control (7th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Paulauskas, V., & Paulauskas, D. (2013). Evaluating the width of navigational channels. Transport, 28(2), 166-174.

Saleh, W., & Sammer, G. (2009). Travel demand management and road user pricing: success, failure and feasibility. Ashgate Publishing.

SAS Institute Inc. (2004). SAS/STAT® 9.1 user’s guide. SAS Publishing. Cary, NC, U.S. 5136 p. Retrieved from

Sidra Intersections. (2008). User guide-introduction. Akcelik & Associates Pty Ltd. 432 p.

Singh, G., Sier, d., Ernst, A. T., Gavriliouk, O., Oyston, R., Giles, T., & Welgama, P. 2012. A mixed integer programming model for long term capacity expansion planning: A case study from The Hunter Walley Coal Chain, European Journal of Operational Research 220(1): 210-224.

Slack, B. (2007). The terminalisation of seaports. In J. Wang, D. Olivier, T. Notteboom, & B. Slack (Eds.), Ports, cities, and global supply chains (pp. 41-50).

Sun, D., Lv, J., & Paul, L. (2008). Calibrating passenger car equivalent (PCE) for highway work zones using speed and percentage of trucks. In TRB 87th annual meeting compendium of papers, Washington, DC, 13–17 January 2008.

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